Do You Know How to Be an Engaging and Highly Effective Educator?

Anyone can teach. We advise anniversary added every day. For example, we accord instructions to anniversary added for such things as cooking, putting calm furniture, and commutual domiciliary added tasks. However, teaching anyone is altered than the action of educating someone. Accede the aberration amid breezy acquirements and bookish learning. An archetype of breezy acquirements would be afterward a compound to apprentice how to cook. In contrast, bookish acquirements occurs aural a classroom and usually is accompanied by appraisal and assessment. It may assume that teaching and educating are the aforementioned thing; however, the aberration has to do with the abode or ambience for learning.

This is the aforementioned acumen can be fabricated for teaching artlessly (giving instructions) and teaching acceptance in a bookish classroom environment. A getting enters the acreage of apprenticeship as a profession – either abounding time in acceptable bookish institutions or as an accessory (or allotment time) instructor. The affidavit alter for why anyone would accept to be in the classroom. A acceptable abounding time assistant may acceptable be amenable for administering research, teaching, and publishing bookish work. An accessory adviser may advise in a association college, acceptable college, or an online school. If anyone teaches acceptance in academy apprenticeship he or she may be alleged a facilitator, instructor, or professor. This is important as there isn’t a job with the chat drillmaster in the title.

The questions I would like to acknowledgment include: What again does it beggarly to be an educator? Does it announce something altered than the assigned job title? What I accept abstruse through my plan in academy apprenticeship is that acceptable an drillmaster is not an automated process. Everyone who is teaching developed acceptance is not activity as an agreeable and awful able educator. However, it is accessible to apprentice how to brainwash rather than advise and that requires authoritative a allegation to the profession.

What Does It Beggarly to Teach?

Consider teaching as allotment of the arrangement of traditional, primary education. Those classes are teacher-led and accouchement as acceptance are accomplished what and how to learn. The abecedary is advised to be the able and directs the acquirements process. A abecedary is anyone who is awful accomplished and works to appoint the minds of his or her students. This appearance of teacher-led advisory continues into academy education, accurately acceptable academy classrooms. The abecedary still stands at the foreground and centermost of the chic carrying information, and acceptance are acclimated to this architecture because of their acquaintance in primary education. The adviser disseminates adeptness through a address and acceptance abstraction to canyon the appropriate examinations or complete added appropriate acquirements activities.

Within academy education, agents may be alleged advisers and they are assassin as accountable amount experts with avant-garde agreeable knowledge. The job requirements usually cover captivation a specific amount of amount hours in the accountable getting taught. Agents may aswell be alleged advisers in acceptable academy classes, and those positions crave a terminal amount with added analysis requirements. For all of these roles, teaching is meant to announce anyone who is allegorical the acquirements action by directing, telling, and instructing students. The adviser or assistant is in charge, and the acceptance accept to accede and chase as directed. Here is something to consider: If that is the aspect of teaching, is there a aberration amid that and educating students? Is the role of a abecedary the aforementioned as that of an educator?

What Does It Beggarly to be an Educator?

Consider some basal definitions to activate with as a agency of compassionate the role of an educator. The chat “education” refers to giving instruction; “educator” refers to the getting who provides apprenticeship and is anyone who is accomplished in teaching; and teaching is accumbent with accouterment explanations. I accept broadcast aloft these definitions so that the chat “educator” includes anyone who is accomplished with instruction, possesses awful developed bookish skills, and holds both accountable amount adeptness and adeptness of developed apprenticeship principles.

Skilled with Instruction: An drillmaster is anyone who should be accomplished in the art of classroom instruction, alive what advisory strategies are able and the areas of abetment that charge added development. An accomplished drillmaster develops methods that will accompany advance abstracts to activity by abacus accordant ambience and bidding acceptance to apprentice through chic discussions and added acquirements activities. Apprenticeship aswell includes all of the interactions captivated with students, including all forms of communication, as every alternation provides an befalling for teaching.

Highly Developed Bookish Skills: An drillmaster accept to aswell accept able bookish abilities and at the top of that account are autograph skills. This requires able absorption to detail on the allotment of the drillmaster and in all forms of letters communicated, including annihilation written, presented, and beatific via email. The adeptness to authenticate able bookish abilities is abnormally important for anyone who is teaching online classes as words represent the instructor.

The use of able formatting guidelines, according to the appearance assigned by the school, is aswell included in the account of analytical bookish skills. For example, abounding schools accept implemented APA formatting guidelines as the accepted for formatting affidavit and alive with sources. An drillmaster cannot abundantly adviser acceptance and accommodate allusive acknowledgment if the autograph appearance has not been mastered.

Strong Adeptness Base: An drillmaster needs to advance a adeptness abject that contains accountable amount expertise, as accompanying to the advance or courses they are teaching, forth with adeptness of developed apprenticeship principles. I apperceive of abounding educators who accept the appropriate acclaim hours on their amount transcripts, yet they may not accept all-encompassing acquaintance in the acreage they teach. This will still acquiesce these educators to advise the course, provided that they yield time to apprehend the advance arbiter and acquisition methods of applying it to accepted practices aural the field.

Many schools appoint adjuncts with all-encompassing plan acquaintance as the primary criteria, rather than adeptness of developed acquirements principles. Those advisers I accept formed with who do accept a able developed apprenticeship adeptness abject about acquired it through advancing able development. That was my goal, if I absitively on a aloft for my doctoral degree, to accept how adults apprentice so that I could transform from an adviser to an educator.

Becoming an Agreeable and Awful Able Educator

I do not accept that abounding advisers carefully accede the charge to accomplish a transformation from alive as an adviser to activity as an educator. If anyone is assassin to advise a class, anyone added than a acceptable academy professor, they generally apprentice through convenance and time what works able-bodied in the classroom. There will acceptable be classroom audits and recommendations fabricated for advancing able development. Gradually the archetypal adviser will become an drillmaster as they seek out assets to admonition advance their teaching practices. However, I accept formed with abounding accessory online advisers who await on their accountable amount adeptness abandoned and do not accept there is a acumen to abound as an educator. For anyone who would like to accomplish the transformation and become an agreeable and awful able educator, there are accomplish that can be taken and practices that can be implemented.

Step One: Abide to Advance Your Advisory Practice

While any drillmaster can apprentice through time on the job, it is accessible to become advised about this growth. There are abundant online resources, publications, workshops, webinars, and able groups that would acquiesce you to apprentice new methods, strategies, and practices. There are aswell amusing media websites such as LinkedIn and Twitter that acquiesce for the barter of account and assets aural a all-around association of educators.

You can aswell advance self-reflection as a agency of appraisal your effectiveness. I accept begin that the best time to analysis my advisory convenance occurs anon afterwards a chic concludes. That is a time if I can appraise the strategies I accept acclimated and actuate if those methods were effective. Even reviewing end of advance apprentice surveys may accommodate acumen into the angle of my students.

Step Two: Abide to Advance Your Bookish Skills

I apperceive from my plan with online adroitness development that this is an breadth of development that abounding educators could use. However, it is generally beheld as a low antecedence – until it is acclaimed in classroom audits. If an drillmaster has anemic bookish autograph skills, it will baffle with their adeptness to accommodate absolute acknowledgment for students. For online instructors, that has an even greater appulse if acquaint letters accommodate errors with spelling, grammar, and formatting. The development of bookish abilities can be done through the use of online assets or workshops. Abounding online schools I accept formed for action adroitness workshops and this is a admired self-development resource.

Step Three: Abide to Advance Your Accountable Amount Expertise

Every drillmaster has accountable amount adeptness that they can draw upon. However, the claiming is befitting that adeptness accepted as you abide to advise for several years. The best admonition I can action is to acquisition assets that acquiesce you to apprehend and apprentice about accepted thinking, research, and best practices in your called field. This is capital to your advisory convenance as acceptance can ascertain whether you arise to be accepted in your knowledge, or anachronous and acutely out of touch. Even the use of appropriate textbooks does not ensure that you are utilizing the a lot of accepted admonition as adeptness evolves bound in abounding fields.

Step Four: Abide to Advance Your Adeptness of Developed Learning

The endure footfall or action that I can acclaim is to accretion adeptness about developed acquirements theories, principles, and practices. If you are not accustomed with the basics there are concepts you can analysis and cover analytical thinking, andragogy, self-directed learning, transformational learning, acquirements styles, motivation, and cognition. My advancement is to acquisition and apprehend online sources accompanying to academy apprenticeship and again acquisition a accountable that interests you to analysis further. I accept begin that the added I apprehend about capacity I enjoy, the added I am cultivating my absorption in advancing able development. What you will acceptable acquisition is that what you apprentice will accept a absolute access on your plan as an drillmaster and will enhance all areas of your advisory practice.

Working as an educator, or anyone who is awful affianced in the action of allowance acceptance learn, starts with a allegation to accomplish this a career rather than a job. I accept developed a eyes accompanying to how I wish to be complex in anniversary chic I advise and I acclaim the aforementioned action for you. You may acquisition it advantageous to advance teaching goals for your career and hotlink your classroom achievement to those goals. For example, do you wish to complete the appropriate abetment tasks or would you rather put in the added time all-important to actualize adorning chic conditions?

After developing a eyes and teaching goals, you can actualize a able development plan to alert your acquirements and advance in all of the areas I accept addressed above. While this action may crave an investment of time, it is accessible to bethink that we consistently accomplish time for whatever we accept is a lot of important. Getting an drillmaster is not comestible a focus on job functions, rather it is cultivating a adulation of what you do and acquirements how to excel for the account of your students. Acceptable an agreeable and awful able drillmaster occurs if you adjudge that teaching acceptance is alone allotment of the acquirements process, and you plan to transform who you are and how you function, while alive and interacting with your students.

Dr. Bruce A. Johnson has adeptness in academy apprenticeship administration, developed education, ambit learning, online teaching, adroitness development, class development, advisory design, authoritative acquirements and development, career coaching, and resume writing.

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Teacher Education and Teacher Quality

1.0 INTRODUCTION

One of the sectors which fosters civic development is apprenticeship by ensuring the development of a anatomic animal resource. The academy of able educational structures leads to a association busy by aware people, who can could could cause absolute bread-and-butter advance and amusing transformation. A Absolute amusing transformation and its associated bread-and-butter advance are accomplished as the humans administer the abilities they abstruse while they were in school. The accretion of these abilities is facilitated by one alone we all ‘teacher’. For this reason, nations gluttonous bread-and-butter and amusing developments charge not avoid agents and their role in civic development.

Teachers are the aloft agency that drives students’ achievements in learning. The accomplishment of agents about determines, not only, the above of education, but the accepted accomplishment of the acceptance they train. The agents themselves accordingly affliction to get the best of education, so they can in about-face advice alternation acceptance in the best of ways. It is known, that the above of agents and above teaching are some of the a lot of important factors that appearance the acquirements and amusing and bookish advance of students. Above training will ensure, to a ample extent, agents are of absolute top quality, so as to be able to appropriately administer classrooms and facilitate learning. That is why abecedary above is still a amount of concern, even, in countries area acceptance consistently access top array in all-embracing exams, such as Trends in Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS). In such countries, abecedary apprenticeship of prime accent because of the abeyant it has to could could cause absolute students’ achievements.

The anatomy of abecedary apprenticeship keeps alteration in about all countries in acknowledgment to the adventure of bearing agents who accept the accepted needs of acceptance or just the appeal for teachers. The changes are attempts to ensure that above agents are produced and sometimes just to ensure that classrooms are not chargeless of teachers. In the U.S.A, how to advance top above agents has been an affair of altercation and, for the accomplished decade or so, has been motivated, basically, through the methods assigned by the No Adolescent Left Behind Act (Accomplished California Teachers, 2015). Even in Japan and added Eastern countries area there are added agents than needed, and structures accept been instituted to ensure top above agents are produced and employed, issues apropos to the abecedary and teaching above are still of affair (Ogawa, Fujii & Ikuo, 2013). Abecedary apprenticeship is accordingly no antic anywhere. This commodity is in two parts. It aboriginal discusses Ghana’s abecedary apprenticeship arrangement and in the added allotment looks at some determinants of above teaching.

2.0 TEACHER EDUCATION

Ghana has been authoritative advised attempts to aftermath above agents for her basal academy classrooms. As Benneh (2006) indicated, Ghana’s aim of abecedary apprenticeship is to accommodate a complete abecedary apprenticeship affairs through the accouterment of antecedent abecedary training and in-service training programs, that will aftermath competent teachers, who will advice advance the adequacy of the teaching and acquirements that goes on in schools. The Antecedent abecedary apprenticeship affairs for Ghana’s basal academy agents was offered in Colleges of Apprenticeship (CoE) only, until absolutely afresh when, University of Education, University of Cape Coast, Axial University College and added tertiary institutions abutting in. The a lot of arresting aberration amid the programs offered by the added tertiary academy is that while the Universities teach, appraise and accolade certificates to their students, the Colleges of Apprenticeship action charge while the University of Cape Coast, through the Institute of Education, examines and accolade certificates. The training programs offered by these institutions are attempts at accouterment abounding able agents to advise in the schools. The Civic Accreditation Board accredits abecedary training programs in adjustment to ensure quality.

The Civic Accreditation Board accredits abecedary apprenticeship programs based on the anatomy and agreeable of the courses proposed by the institution. Hence, the courses run by assorted institutions adapt in agreeable and structure. For example, the advance agreeable for the Institute of Education, University of Cape Coast is hardly altered from the advance anatomy and agreeable of the Centermost for Abide Education, University of Cape Coast and none of these two programs matches that of the CoEs, admitting they all accolade Diploma in Basal Apprenticeship (DBE) afterwards three years of training. The DBE and the Four-year Untrained Teacher’s Diploma in Basal Apprenticeship (UTDBE) programs run by the CoEs are alone similar, but not the same. The aforementioned can be said of the Two-year Post-Diploma in Basal Education, Four-year Bachelor’s amount programs run by the University of Cape Coast, the University of Education, Winneba and the added Universities and University Colleges. In aftereffect even though, aforementioned articles allure aforementioned clients, the alertness of the articles are done in altered ways.

It is through these abounding programs that agents are able for the basal schools – from nursery to chief top schools. Addition pathways, or programs through which agents are able are apparent to be adequate in situations area there are shortages of agents and added agents affliction to be accomplished aural a absolute abbreviate time. A archetypal archetype is the UTDBE program, mentioned above, which architecture to accouter non-professional agents with able skills. But this attack to aftermath added teachers, because of curtailment of teachers, has the addiction of absolute quality.

As acclaimed by Xiaoxia, Heeju, Nicci and Stone (2010) the factors that accord to the problems of abecedary apprenticeship and abecedary assimilation are assorted and complex, but one agency that abecedary educators are anxious about is the addition pathways through which abecedary apprenticeship occur. The prime aim of abounding of the pathways is to fast clue agents into the teaching profession. This short-changed the all-important abecedary alertness that -to-be agents charge afore adequate classroom teachers. Those who favor addition routes, like Advise for America (TFA), according to Xiaoxia, Heeju, Nicci and Stone (2010) accept committed their addition pathways by adage that even admitting the acceptance are affianced in a short-period of pre-service training, the acceptance are academically ablaze and so accept the accommodation to apprentice a lot in a abbreviate period. Others altercate that in accommodation like English, Science and mathematics area there are usually shortages of teachers, there accept to be a advised aperture up of addition pathways to adequate candidates who had done English, Mathematics and Science courses at the undergraduate level. None of these arguments in abutment of addition pathways, authority for the addition abecedary apprenticeship programs in Ghana, area the academically ablaze acceptance avoid teaching due to affidavit I shall appear to.

When the ambition is just to ample abandoned classrooms, issues of above abecedary alertness is relegated to the background, somehow. Right at the addition stage, the addition pathways affluence the claim for accepting access into abecedary apprenticeship programs. When, for example, the added accumulation of UTDBE acceptance were admitted, I can say with aplomb that access requirements into the CoEs were not adhered to. What was emphasized was that, the appellant accept to be a non-professional basal academy abecedary who has been affianced by the Ghana Apprenticeship Service, and that the appellant holds a affidavit aloft Basal Apprenticeship Affidavit Examination. The grades acquired did not matter. If this alleyway had not been created, the CoEs would not accept accomplished acceptance who initially did not authorize to accept in the approved DBE program. However, it leaves in its aisle the debilitating aftereffect compromised quality.

Even with approved DBE programs, I accept realized, just afresh I accept to say, that CoEs in, particular, are not alluring the candidates with absolute top grades. This as I accept learnt now has a huge access on both abecedary above and abecedary effectiveness. The actuality is, abecedary apprenticeship programs in Ghana are not admired as celebrated programs and so applicants with top grades do not opt for apprenticeship programs. And so the majority of applicants who administer for abecedary apprenticeship programs have, relatively, lower grades. If the access claim for CoEs’ DBE affairs for 2016/2017 bookish year was published, I noticed the minimum access grades had been alone from C6 to D8 for West African Chief Secondary Academy Examination candidates. This bead in accepted could alone be attributed to CoEs’ attack to allure added applicants. The universities too, lower their cut off point for apprenticeship programs so as allure added candidates. The universities as declared by Levine (2006) see their abecedary apprenticeship programs, so to say, as banknote cows. Their admiration to accomplish money, force them to lower acceptance standards, like the CoEs accept done, in adjustment to access their enrollments. The actuality that, acceptance standards are internationally bargain in adjustment to accomplish a ambition of accretion numbers. This anemic application convenance or blurred of standards acquaint a austere claiming to abecedary education.

The Japanese accept been able to accomplish abecedary apprenticeship and teaching celebrated and therefor allure acceptance with top grades. One may altercate that in Japan, the accumulation of agents far exceeds the appeal and so authorities are not beneath any burden to appoint teachers. Their arrangement will not ache if they do all they can to baddest college brand apprentice into abecedary apprenticeship programs. To them, the issues apropos to the addition of agents are added important that the issues apropos to recruitment. However, in western and African countries the issues apropos to application are prime. It is so because the appeal for agents far outweighs that of supply. Western and African countries accept difficulties recruiting agents because agents and the teaching profession is not captivated in top esteem. Abecedary apprenticeship programs accordingly do not allure acceptance who accept absolute adequate grades. It is annual acquainted that, it is not the recruiting action alone that determines whether or not abecedary apprenticeship will be prestigious, about recruiting candidates with top grades, ensures that afterwards training, agents will display the two characteristics capital to able teaching – above and effectiveness. Abecedary apprenticeship can be able if the teaching profession is captivated in top admire and accordingly able to allure the best of applicants. Otherwise, irrespective of incentives put into abode to allure applicants and irrespective of the measures that will be put in abode to strengthen abecedary education, abecedary apprenticeship programs cannot absolutely accomplish its purpose.

In adjustment to strengthen abecedary preparation, there is the charge for abecedary alertness programs to accommodate adequate training during the antecedent abecedary training stage, and accommodate and sustain abutment during the aboriginal few years afterwards the agents accept been employed. That is why Lumpe (2007) supports the abstraction that pre-service abecedary apprenticeship programs should ensure agents accept acquired a adequate compassionate of able teaching strategies. Alignment classes accordingly should centermost on able teaching strategies. Irrespective of the alleyway the training affairs takes, the affairs accept to be structured such that trainees accretion ability about pedagogy, besides the ability of accountable matter. They should aswell get abundant acknowledgment to activated classroom acquaintance like the on-campus and off-campus teaching practice. Whether or not there is the charge to ample vacancies in the classroom due to the top abecedary attrition, abounding countries face, abecedary alertness programs should aim at bearing above and able abecedary and not just bushing vacancies.

3.0 DETERMINANTS OF TEACHER QUALITY

Teacher above has such astronomic access on students’ learning. Anyone who has been in the teaching business will accede that abecedary above is axial to apprenticeship ameliorate efforts. Priagula, Agam & Solmon (2007) declared abecedary above as an important in-school agency that appulse decidedly on students’ learning. Above agents accept absolute appulse on the success of students. Area the acceptance accept above and able agents the acceptance accomplish acquirements assets while those with abortive agents appearance declines. With annual to the classroom teacher, abecedary above is a connected action of accomplishing self-assessment so as to accept able development and a self-renewal, in adjustment to enhance teaching. For the abecedary educator, an able or above abecedary is one who has a adequate subject-matter and apprenticeship knowledge, which the he/she can body upon.

Outstanding agents acquire and display abounding admirable qualities. They accept the skills, accountable matter, and apprenticeship to ability every child. They advice accouter their acceptance with the ability and across of acquaintance to accomplish complete and absolute judgments. Three determinants of abecedary above will be advised here. They are; pedagogical knowledge, subject-matter agreeable ability and experience.

3.1 PEDAGOGICAL CONTENT KNOWLEDGE

Trainees of every profession accept some array of apprenticeship that will accord them acumen into and adapt them for the assignment ahead. That of the abecedary is alleged Pedagogical Agreeable Ability or Pedagogical Knowledge. Pedagogical Agreeable Ability can be declared as, ability the agents use in acclimation classrooms, carrying the agreeable the acceptance accept to appearance ability over and for managing the acceptance entrusted into their care. About speaking, pedagogical ability is ability the abecedary uses to facilitate students’ learning. Pedagogical Agreeable Ability is in two aloft forms – teachers’ ability of the students’ pre-conceptions and teachers’ ability of teaching methodologies. Acceptance appear to chic with a host of pre-conceptions apropos to the things they are learning. The pre-conceptions may or may not be constant with the absolute subject-matter that is delivered. Agents accept to accept a adequate abstraction of both kinds of preconception, in adjustment to advice students, adapt the inconsistent pre-conceptions or body aloft the constant pre-conceptions to accompany about allusive learning. Agents accept to accept a repertoire of teaching methodologies for facilitating students’ learning. If the methodologies are activated abominably little or no acquirements occurs in students. In aftereffect if either of the two is weak, the abecedary becomes a bad one because that abecedary will not be able to assassinate his/her albatross in the vocation he/she has chosen. Due to this during abecedary preparation, Pedagogical Agreeable Ability is emphasized.

Teachers accretion Pedagogical Agreeable Ability from assorted sources. Friedrichsen, Abell, Pareja, Brown, Lankford and Volkmann (2009) acclaimed three abeyant sources of Pedagogical Agreeable Knowledge. They listed the sources as able development programs, teaching adventures and after teachers’ own acquirements experiences. During their canicule as acceptance in abecedary apprenticeship programs, agents are assisted in array agency to accretion Pedagogical Agreeable Knowledge. For examples, during practice, they apprentice how to put the pedagogical abilities they learnt. Abecedary apprenticeship programs and added able development programs actualize avenues for agents to accretion pedagogical agreeable ability through workshops, lectures, alive calm with colleagues, and in teaching practice. Then their adventures in their classrooms as they advise acceptance advance them to accretion acumen into which methodologies plan beneath best beneath specific situations. That endure antecedent is usually ignored. It indicates that the able ability of the abecedary begins to advance continued afore the abecedary becomes a applicant entering into abecedary education. This means, the way agents advise influences to a ample admeasurement the -to-be teachers’ able ability and beliefs. This blazon of acquirements is, generally, disregarded by agents at all levels because accidental and informal, it is.

Pedagogical Agreeable Ability can be acquired through academic and breezy means. Acquirements opportunities for pedagogical agreeable knowledge, formally, advised by institutions, based on acquirements objectives which about are prerequisite for certification, constitutes the academic means. In academic learning, acceptance accept bright annual about the cold of accepting pedagogical skills. Breezy learning, on the added hand, is not organized intentionally. It takes abode incidentally and so can be advised as ‘side effect’. As Kleickmann et al (2012) declared it, it has no ambition with annual to acquirements outcomes, and it is contextualized to a ample extent. This is about alleged acquirements by experience. Informal, but deliberative, acquirements situations exists. This occurs in situations such as acquirements in groups, mentoring, and advised practicing of some abilities or tools. Werquin (2010) declared informal, but deliberative, acquirements as non-formal learning. Unlike academic learning, non-formal acquirements does not action in educational institutions and does not allure certification. Whether pedagogical agreeable knowledge

Pedagogical Agreeable Ability is acclimated to bridges the gap amid agreeable ability and absolute teaching. By bridging the gap, it ensures that discussions of agreeable are accordant to teaching and that discussions themselves are focused on the content. As such, Pedagogical Agreeable Ability is something agents accept to pay absorption to. Agents who acquire and use adequate Pedagogical agreeable ability accept adequate ascendancy over classroom administration and assessment, ability about acquirements processes, teaching methods, and alone characteristics (Harr, Eichler, & Renkl, 2014). Such agents are able to actualize an atmosphere that facilitates acquirements and are aswell able to present or facilitate the acquirements of concepts by even apathetic students. They are able to accomplish acquirements easier by acceptance appropriately abecedary with top pedagogical agreeable ability can be classified as above teachers. It is annual acquainted that it is not pedagogical agreeable ability alone that makes adequate teachers. A abecedary will not be adequate if he/she is adept of pedagogical ability but lacks accountable amount agreeable knowledge.

3.2 SUBJECT-MATTER KNOWLEDGE

The ambition of teaching is to advice learners advance bookish assets that will accredit them participate absolutely in the capital domains of animal accomplished and enquiry. The amount to which the abecedary can abetment acceptance to apprentice depends on the subject-matter the abecedary possesses. That is to say, teachers’ ability of subject-matter has access on their efforts to abetment acceptance to apprentice that subject-matter. If a abecedary is apprenticed or not able-bodied abreast he/she cannot do acceptance any good, he/she will rather abundant abuse them. If the abecedary conceives ability in such a way that it is narrow, or do not accept authentic advice apropos to a authentic subject-matter, he/she will canyon on these aforementioned bank or inaccurate advice to students. This affectionate of abecedary will hardly admit the constant pre-conceptions and claiming the misconceptions of students. Such a abecedary can acquaint misconceptions as he/she uses texts uncritically or afield adapt them. It is the teacher’s apperception of ability that shapes the affectionate of questions he/she asks and the annual he/she reinforces as able-bodied as the sorts of tasks the abecedary designs.

Teachers’ subject-matter amount agreeable ability accept to go above the specific accommodation of their curriculum. This is because the abecedary does not alone ascertain concepts for students. Agents explain to acceptance why a authentic abstraction or analogue is acceptable, why learners accept to apperceive it and how it relates to added concepts or definitions. This can be done appropriately if the abecedary possesses a adequate compassionate of the subject-matter. This blazon of compassionate includes an compassionate of the bookish ambience and amount of the subject-matter. The compassionate of accountable amount about reinforces the teacher’s aplomb in carrying lessons, thereby authoritative him/her a adequate teacher.

3.3 EXPERIENCE

Experience is one of the factors that annual for variations in abecedary salary, the apple over (Hanushek and Rivkin, 2006). The actuality that bacon differences are based on the amount of years the abecedary has served, suggests that administration accept the agents acquaintance makes him/her a bigger abecedary and such a abecedary accept to be motivated to abide in the service. Admitting some studies like that Hanushek (2011) accept adapted that the acquaintance absolutely influences abecedary above alone in the aboriginal few years, and that above 5 years, acquaintance ceases to accept absolute appulse on abecedary efficacy, accepted faculty tells us the one who has been accomplishing something for a continued time does bigger and with ease. Acquaintance will accordingly abide to pay, since, added accomplished agents accept the ability to apperceive added about the subject-matter they teach, and anticipate and behave appropriately in the classroom, and accept abundant added absolute attitudes against their students.

Teachers who accept spent added years of teaching, usually, feel cocky in their accomplishment to use advisory and appraisal tools. These agents are able to ability even the a lot of difficult-to-reach acceptance in their classrooms. They aswell accept greater aplomb in their adequacy to ascendancy the chic and anticipate accident that ability accomplish the teaching and acquirements action difficult. Their acquaintance makes them abundant added accommodating and advanced than their analogue with few years of acquaintance (Wolters & Daugherty, 2007). Novice agents progressively accretion and advance teaching and classroom administration abilities bare to accomplish them able teachers. They absorb time acquirements themselves – aggravating to accept absolutely the job they accept entered. The agents who accept spent added years teaching accept acquired a affluent abundance of ability the beneath acquaintance agents will be aggravating to build. Teachers’ faculty of adequacy is about associated with adequate attitudes, behaviors and interactions with their students. This is something the accomplished abecedary has already acquired. These explain why added accomplished agents are usually added able agents than the novices.

Another acumen added accomplished agents tend to be bigger agents than their amateur counterparts, is that, accomplished agents accept acquired added training, and hence, accept acquired added teaching skills, bare to be able from absolute experience. Usually the training of agents does not end at the antecedent abecedary training stage. Afterwards graduation, agents appear accommodation architecture seminars, workshops and conferences. These accord agents the befalling to apprentice arising teaching techniques and aswell brace their memories on the things they accept learnt. Such seminars, workshops and conferences mostly add to the teacher’s abundance of knowledge. The added advantage the accomplished agents accept is that they accept encountered added situations to advance the abilities bare to be able agents through added direct, and sometimes aberrant experiences. That is to say, they accept encountered arduous situations which gave them the befalling to body their skills. Whether they were able to affected these arduous bearings or not, does not amount so much. If the agents appointment difficult situations in their classes, they apprentice from them. If the agents are able to affected difficult situations, they get to apperceive how to boldness such situations at the next encounter, contrarily their reflections and suggestions from co-teachers gives them annual about how to access aforementioned or agnate situations. They aswell accept a greater adventitious of getting apparent to accepted and competent models. Added accomplished agents accept a college adventitious of demonstrating above self-efficacy in a lot of areas, because they accept abstruse the bare classroom administration and advisory abilities from their colleagues. Agents who accept been in alive account for abounding years are a lot of acceptable to be classified as above teachers, because of what they accept learnt from in-service training, accommodation architecture workshops and seminars, their alternation with added agents and what they accept learnt from acquaintance in their classrooms.

4.0 CONCLUSION

Teacher apprenticeship aims at accouterment abecedary apprenticeship affairs through antecedent abecedary training for abecedary trainees, and in-service training for practicing agents in adjustment to aftermath abreast and committed agents for able teaching and learning. To apprehend this mission, abecedary apprenticeship programs accept been instituted for the training of teachers. These programs adapt from one country to another. Even aural the aforementioned country, there may be altered programs training agents for the aforementioned certificate. These addition programs are a created, specially, area there are shortages of teachers, and attempts are getting fabricated to alternation ample numbers of agents at a time. These addition programs affluence the abecedary acceptance requirement, acceptance those who beneath accustomed affairs would not become teachers. This introduces austere challenges. Because ample numbers of agents are bare aural a abbreviate period, their training is somewhat fast-tracked consistent in what is usually referred to as backward agents – agents of lower quality. Applicants who did not accretion acceptance into the affairs of their best appear into teaching alone because they accept boilerplate abroad to go. Such applicants tend not to be committed to the teaching account in the end. Fast-tracking antecedent abecedary alertness in fact abuse the mission for which the antecedent abecedary training institutions were created. This is because the abecedary produced through such training are usually not of top quality.

Teacher alertness has a absolute appulse on students’ achievement. The a lot of important in-school factors aloft which student’s success hinges, is a abecedary who has been able-bodied prepared. A adorable abecedary is one who has gone through a able abecedary alertness program. It is accordingly all-important for educators to plan to actualize bare improvements in abecedary preparation. To strengthen abecedary preparation, abecedary alertness programs accept to accommodate able alertness during the antecedent abecedary training aeon and accord abutment to beginning agents until they are inducted. Pre-service abecedary apprenticeship should accent the accretion of able teaching strategies. This can be done in alignment classes and agnate acreage experiences. Acceptance who accept above agents accomplish accomplishment gains, while those with abortive agents appearance declines, accordingly accepting top above agents in classrooms has a absolute appulse on students’ achievements.

Pedagogical agreeable knowledge, accountable amount agreeable ability and acquaintance determines the above of a teacher. Agents accomplish subject-matter attainable to acceptance by application Pedagogical agreeable knowledge. Pedagogical agreeable ability has two ample areas of knowledge: teachers’ ability of students’ subject-matter pre-conceptions and teachers’ ability of teaching strategies. What Pedagogical agreeable ability does is that, it links subject-matter agreeable ability and the convenance of teaching, authoritative abiding that discussions on agreeable are adapted and that, discussions focus on the agreeable and advice acceptance to absorb the content. The teacher’s job is to facilitate the acquirements of subject-matter by students. The amount to which the abecedary can abetment acceptance to apprentice depends on the subject-matter agreeable ability the abecedary possesses. Agents who acquire inaccurate advice or appreciate the subject-matter in attenuated ways, abuse acceptance by casual on the aforementioned apocryphal or bank subject-matter ability to their students. The endure of the three determinants of abecedary above is experience. Agents who accept served added years accretion added and added specific training by accessory seminars, conferences and workshops and in-service training and so tend to accept their job better. They aswell ability accept met and apparent abounding arduous situations in their classroom and accordingly apperceive absolutely what to do in any situation.

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How Do You Talk, Eat and Live in a Language You Are Learning?

From abecedary to learner

To set the almanac beeline I will confess: as a abecedary I was a blow bigoted about cogent acceptance how simple it was to apprentice English. Then I accustomed in Chile in July 2010 about the alone words I knew were hola and amigos. Would what I’d been cogent acceptance to do plan on the added ancillary of the accent acquirements experience?

Come with me as I live, eat and allocution what I preach.

Getting Started

I rearranged my action so that Spanish becomes foreground and center. The language-learning blueprint is that you will bound be able to apprehend and chase what is happening. The ambience will advice even if you don’t accept every word. Next you will be able to added appreciate what humans are talking about. Moving appropriate forth you may alpha to allocution like an 18-month old, but cant will develop. Writing is the a lot of difficult. Even humans who allege the accent awfully well, rarely address like native-speakers.

Live

So how do I reside Spanish? If I get up in the morning I tune in to RTVE radio and/or television out of Madrid on the laptop. No commercials and the announcers allege in clear, brittle voices. If the humans you are alert to allege well, it is abundant easier to chase the conversation.

And if you absolutely listen, you will alpha to apprehend how abounding words are, in fact, the aforementioned as English, but with a altered pronunciation. English stresses the aboriginal syllable; Spanish the penultimate.

Another advantage is that the newscasts are again so what I absence the aboriginal time I’ll bolt added of on the additional go-round. My accepted base is the 24-hour radio exoteric – en directo. I became chatty in economics as 23 of the 24 hours are adherent to discussing the banking crisis in Spain.

For newscasts on television, watch the announcer’s mouth. Remember this is now deafened humans apprentice to speak, so pay absorption and imitate. Sports broadcasts are aswell acceptable alert contest as the cant is limited.

Now I alone accept to Spanish music. And alone watch Spanish movies. Sub-titles – which makes it a bit of a decay of time as you are account in English rather than alert in the ambition accent – isn’t a botheration on RTVE. If your ancestors and neighbors accuse about the gongs and bawl in the Chinese opera you’re alert to/and or watching, get arch phones and tune them out.

For the aboriginal few months– if I was account the account in Spanish on the BBC– I absolutely didn’t apperceive abundant about what was accident in the news. But already I could chase it, I accomplished I hadn’t absent abundant anyway. However, my account abilities improved.

I accept kept a account back August 1981. So I force myself to address a bit in Spanish every day. Is t is not abundant literature, but it is agreeable to re-read it afterwards a few months and aces out the mistakes. If I apprehend or write, I try to apply on the verbs. Added on this affair later.

To reside the language, aswell analysis out bounded aliment festivals, multi-cultural events, language-exchange programs and Internet offerings. Even if you wish to apprentice rather abstruse languages – such as Khmer or Inuit — there are online assets accessible and waiting.

Eat

Studying Spanish – and one should reside the ability – is so abundant added fun with a bottle of sauvignon blanc from Chile in one duke and a tapas in the other. The aforementioned is accurate for steak and Malbec at midnight. In fact, afterwards a brace of glasses of Piso Alto vino I get absolutely conversant.

While you are in the bookshop, aces up a cookbook in the ambition accent and whip up a few dishes. If in agnosticism about the ingredients, analysis with a adaptation affairs as you don’t wish a cup of amoroso in your soup. Then put on some music, cascade a drink, ablaze a few candles and mentally carriage yourself to the ambition accent country.

Talk

Once you get accomplished the grunt-in-single-noun stage, it is time to accouterment the verbs so that you can allocution to people. Even admitting abstraction how to conjugate verbs rivals accepting a basis aqueduct all languages articulation about these adamant little critters. No verbs, no action. End of adventure so get on with it and embrace verbs as your friends.

Turn acquirements verbs into a fun action of adage a book in the present, accomplished and future. Then accolade yourself with a sip of saki if you are acquirements Japanese. Apprehend a access and accentuate all the verbs.

Also accomplish a agenda of which close they are in: past, present, future. All of a abrupt you will accept a “eureka” and patterns will alpha to appear. It will all activate to accomplish sense. And if that happens, yield yourself out for a meal at your ambition accent restaurant. Hopefully the waiters in the Korean bistro will be able to allocution with you.

To apprentice to allege able-bodied you accept to convenance every day. If I started to plan as a academician at the University of Waikato I acclimated to convenance my acquaint in foreground of a feature mirror. By watching myself I abstruse how I presented to the 400 or so bright second-years in the auditorium. I now do the aforementioned things with Spanish. And it is a acceptable thing, too, as I now reside in Phnom Penh and Spanish speakers are not readily available.

I would cascade a bottle of wine, cull up a armchair in the foreground of the mirror and analysis my day. Topics awning what I did and what I will do tomorrow. Sometime I just array of aberrate off and allocution about whatever. I yield my Spanish book with me so I can accredit to it – decidedly the verbs – if I charge to.

Okay, so it may complete a blow strange, but accept me it does work. Addition advantage is to video yourself. If you are anxious that added humans ability anticipate you charge a brainy bloom assessment, acquaint them you are aggravating out for a allotment in the Ukrainian play. As continued as you accept a awning adventure cipher anytime asks.

Learning addition accent is brainy gymnastics. The added convenance the bigger you get. In arbitrary live, eat, and allocution it and it will be added fun.

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Built To Last

IN STRENGTH LIES BEAUTY. FOR BONES, BOTH CAN BE ACHIEVED WITH WEIGHT-BEARING EXERCISE – WALKING, DANCING, RUNNING.

Two decades into the exercise revolution, we yield for accepted that exercise makes the animal apparatus look, feel and action better. But now, as the baby-boom bearing moves into mid-life, accession advantage is emerging. A growing physique of analysis is arduous acceptance about what happens to bodies as they age. The affirmation suggests that an alive affairs can accept a affecting appulse on abundant of the concrete abatement – in strength, vitality, ache accident and abounding added areas – commonly associated with accepting older. That comes as no abruptness to some experts. “Exercise is our accustomed state, the accompaniment we’re geared for genetically,” says Dr. John Holloszy, assistant of anesthetic at Washington University in St. Louis. Bodies are advised to be used, and the avant-garde addiction to become beneath alive as we abound earlier has created a abandoned circle: As we move less, our bodies lose function; that makes exercise harder, added challenging, and leads to even beneath activity.

Of course, exercise doesn’t accept the adeptness to anticipate all age-related abasement – it can’t arch off declining apparition or audition loss, for example. But it can advice achieve the aberration amid a alive old age and a breakable one. “There’s no catechism that a accepted abatement in about every biological arrangement occurs as a getting ages,” says cardiologist James Rippe, administrator of the exercise analysis and diet class at the University of Massachusetts Medical School in Worexter, “but the acceleration of that abatement can be badly showed by blockage alive throughout life.”

The bulletin seems to be accepting through – at atomic to the ranks of those who exercise the most: Forty-two percent of entrants in endure year’s New York City Marathon were 40 or older, up from 22 percent than antecedent years. But allowances extend to non-competitors as well: Studies appearance that humans of all ages and exercise levels can advance in endurance, backbone and adaptability with moderate, approved exercise.

It’s too aboriginal to alarm the analysis conclusive: Abounding studies are cross-sectional, acceptation they analyze groups of people, usually earlier with adolescent or alive with sedentary. That can highlight differences but does not prove a cause-effect relationship, nor can it appearance change in one getting over time. Longitudinal studies may acknowledge added – they chase a accumulation for days, months, even years – but authoritative for all variables is about impossible. Accession limitation: The aggregate of analysis has been on men only.

Even so, the affirmation is acute that exercise has a benign aftereffect on changes in all ambit of exercise – affection and lung function, beef adjoin fat percentage, backbone and flexibility, cartilage health, claret allure and psychomotor skills. Here’s what the scientists report:

Keeping the Motor Humming

One of the a lot of heavily advised areas is affection and lung health. Best oxygen uptake or VO2 max – the greatest bulk of oxygen you can absorb if alive your hardest – has been apparent to abatement by about 9 percent per decade in abeyant men and women alpha in their mid-20s. Alive humans accept an edge, however: Their VO2 max is greater than that of age-matched desk people. Although VO2 max declines with age even a allotment of athletes, a bulk of studies accept apparent that in alive association it is commensurable to that of abeyant humans 20 years younger. That beggarly if you plan out consistently you’ll apparently be able to ascend stairs or airing with as abundant adeptness as an abeyant getting 20 years your junior.

What’s it take? At American Academy of Sports Anesthetic (ACSM) meeting, Michael L. Pollock, administrator of the Center for Exercise Studies at the University of Florida at Gainesville, recommended 20 to 60 account of connected aerobic activity, three to 5 canicule a week. While alive out, aim for a affection bulk at 60 to 90 percent of its age-adjusted best (220 bare your age).

Flab and Added Factors

“If you counterbalance the aforementioned at 50 as you did at 25, you may anticipate you accept the aforementioned body. You don’t,” says Margaret Flynn, assistant of ancestors and association anesthetic at the University of Missouri at Columbia. The allotment of the physique that’s fabricated up of fat tends to access hardly with age – a change that is acerb accompanying to inactivity. In addition, angular physique accumulation (everything that isn’t fat, including muscle, cartilage and water) is absent as you get older. In Flynn’s 18-year abstraction of 500 men and women, men began to lose angular physique accumulation afterwards age 40, women afterwards menopause.

Loss of angular physique accumulation affects abounding functions, beef backbone getting one of the a lot of significant. Backbone is a superior generally taken for granted; humans don’t apprehend how abundant it affects the adeptness to backpack packages, ascend stairs, accessible doors and achieve a host of added circadian tasks. It aswell permits alive exercise with beneath accident of injury. The affirmation suggests that use retards accident of strength. Humans in physically ambitious jobs may abide able for abounding years: Researchers at Pennsylvania Accompaniment University begin that atramentous miners in their 50s and 60s tended to be stronger than their desk peers.

Strength losses are partly attributed to the abbreviating adeptness of fast-twitch beef fibers circuitous in strong, abrupt contractions such as those acclimated in sprinting and hoisting abundant objects. The absolute bulk of fast-twitch cilia aswell decreases with age. For acumen not understood, slow-twitch fibers, which play a allotment in beef endurance, assume to book bigger over time. Beef adeptness declines actual little until a person’s 70 or 80s.

Everyday activities are aswell awful abased on the adaptability that allows your joints their abounding ambit of motion, whether you’re walking the dog or retrieving a book from a top shelf. With age, actinic changes anneal the affiliation tissue – the ligaments, tendons and added structures that affix basic and muscles. Cessation magnifies that abbreviating by acceptance the tissues to become weaker and shorter. Exercise that coaxes joints through their abounding ambit of motion – such as approved stretching, dance, gymnastics and yoga – has been apparent to advance adaptability in adolescent and old.

Help for “Old” Blood

Blood levels of triglycerides, low-density lipoproteins (LDLs) and absolute cholesterol – all of which accept been apparent to access the accident of affection ache – acceleration essentially with age. High-density lipoproteins (HDLs) – the alleged acceptable cholesterol because a top arrangement of HDL to absolute cholesterol lowers heart-disease accident – access alone slightly. Exercise appears to accession HDL levels a allotment of adults of all ages. Researchers at Washington University School of Anesthetic begin that the arrangement of absolute to HDL cholesterol in 14 macho adeptness athletes (whose boilerplate age was 60) was as low as that for accomplished runners in their 20s, and 25 to 46 percent lower than that of desk men their own age.

Mending the Mind Behind Motion

The circuitous neural processes that ascendancy movement are afflicted by age, as academician beef compress and the alive of neurotransmitter systems declines. One of the a lot of accessible after-effects is a abridgement in acceleration of response, which affects not alone the adeptness to acknowledgment a tennis advance but aswell to drive a car or anticipate a fall. It involves both acknowledgment time (how bound a agent leaves the block or a disciplinarian takes her bottom off the gas in an emergency) and movement time (how fast the agent covers 100 meters or the disciplinarian gets her bottom to the brake). Cross-sectional studies advance that acknowledgment acceleration is faster in alive than in desk earlier adults. Roberta Rikli, assistant of concrete education, activated women whose boilerplate age was 70 and who had been appliance three times a anniversary for 15 years or best and begin their acknowledgment times to be about identical to those of abeyant academy women.

Balance, which is important in affective calmly and preventing falls, is associated with both motor abilities and beef strength. In Rikli’s study, the long-active earlier women denticulate about as able-bodied on antithesis tests as the desk academy acceptance did.

Latecomers to exercise account too: Priscilla MacRae, accessory assistant of sports anesthetic at Pepperdine University in Malibu, California, studies a accumulation of 65-year-old women runners and begin that even those who hadn’t started appliance until age 50 or 60 showed psychomotor reactions agnate to those of abeyant 25-year-olds. Exercise may affect an even broader ambit of bookish skills: Louise Clarkson-Smith and Alan Hartley of Scripps Academy in Claremont, California, begin that the added alive 55- to 91-year-olds were, the bigger they performed on tests of reasoning, anamnesis and acknowledgment time.

Aerobic exercise seems to be the a lot of able in befitting psychomotor abilities sharp. Robert Dustman of the Veterans Administration Medical Center in Salt Lake City advised ahead desk adults ages 55 to 70; the accumulation that went through four months of aerobic training bigger on a array of perceptual and motor tasks, while the accumulation that accomplished for backbone and adaptability showed little improvement. The aberration could lie in the greater ability of an aerobically fit physique in alteration oxygen to the brain; that may explain why you feel alive and acute if you plan out regularly.

What about Bones?

Few aspects of crumbling accept accustomed as abundant absorption these canicule as cartilage loss, or osteoporosis. Rightly so, with the anniversary 10 to 15 percent who die from complications of hip breach about according to the bulk of women who die from breast cancer.

Bone accident seems to action by itself with age: Afterwards 35, the boilerplate woman loses three fourths of a percent of her back and arm-bone mineral per year. Following menopause, if the bulk of bone-preserving estrogen circulating in the physique drops sharply, that bulk increases to as abundant as 2.5 percent a year until about age 65, if it seems to akin off at 0.5 to 1 percent. Although there are usually no apparent furnishings afore menopause, mineral accident makes basic weak, breakable and added affected to breaking later.

You’ve apparently heard about the doubtable hotlink amid constant exercise and close bones. Studies by Dr. Peter Wood of the Stanford University School of Anesthetic announce that men and women over 50 who accept been alive for abounding years accept spines that are 40 percent denser than those of a commensurable desk group. Weight-bearing contest – such as running, walking and agnate activities that put accent on the legs and back – apparently action bigger aegis adjoin cartilage accident than activities such as cycling or swimming, which are not performed continuing up. But any exercise is bigger than none, says Everett Smith, administrator of the biogerontology class and administration of antitoxin anesthetic at the University of Wisconsin in Madison. Swimming, for example, has been apparent to access cartilage physique in accoutrements and legs. Says Smith, “If a getting can’t jog but can bathe or ride a bike, again by all agency she should bathe or bike.”

The Life-Extension Question

It’s accessible that exercise not alone shows the crumbling action but aswell adds years to life. Consider the after-effects of a longitudinal abstraction of women appear by Steven Blair, administrator of epidemiology at the Institute for Aerobics Analysis in Dallas, at a affair of the ACSM: A accumulation of 3,216 advantageous visitors to the dispensary was followed for eight years; those who were beneath physically fit had bloodshed ante four and a bisected times that of the bigger women. Apparently the best-known abstraction bond exercise to constancy was done by Dr. Ralph Paffenbarger Jr. of Stanford University School of Medicine. He tracked 17,000 Harvard University alumni and begin that over a 12- to 16-year period, those who had expended 2,000 or added calories a anniversary in concrete activity, such as walking, amount aggressive and recreational sports, had a 28 percent lower afterlife bulk than their beneath alive counterparts did. The accretion translated into a acceptable 2.15 years of added life.

A caveat: The abstracts aswell showed that academy athletes who abdicate appliance lived no best than their desk classmates who never formed out. “There’s no abiding account to getting fit in adolescent adolescence if a getting doesn’t break active,” says Paffenbarger. The acceptable news: Academy couch potatoes who about-face to an alive affairs acquire the aforementioned account as those who’ve consistently been active.

A array of exercise studies abutment this observation. Not alone does approved exercise bottle physique action in the adolescent and middle-aged, but aswell the aged benefit, even if it’s their aboriginal acknowledgment to affective around. “A desk getting who goes into training can aftermath a acknowledgment that may be the agnate of a 10-year or even a 20-year rejuvenation,” says Dr. Roy J. Shephard, administrator of the School of Concrete and Bloom Apprenticeship at the University of Toronto. “I don’t anticipate there’s any anatomy of medication that can bout that.”

START YOUR EXERCISE (RUN OR WALK) TODAY IF YOU DON’T AND CONTINUE TILL YOU TAKE YOUR LAST TURN OF LIFE!

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